First lab in tricity to get NABL Accreditation in six disciplines of lab medicine.

  1. Electro Chemiluminescence immunoassay
    It is based on the technique of using streptavidin coated solid phase along with ruthenium complex labeled antibodies for detection of analytes. The sample, the biotinylated antibodies, antibodies labeled ruthenium complex, and streptavidin coated micro particles are mixed into a reaction cup and incubated. The reaction mixture is aspirated into an electrochemical measuring cell, and unbound conjugate are washed away by TPA and a magnet. Electrical current is then used to excite the ruthenium complex and initiate signal generation to detect the antigen-antibody complexes in the sample.
  2. Enzyme immunoassay
    This type of immunoassay employs the use of enzyme labeled antibodies for the detection of antigen/antibodies in the sample. The enzyme catalyzes a color reaction when exposed to the substrate.
  3. Immunoturbidometry
    This measures the reduction in light transmission caused by particle formation.
  4. Electrophoresis and Immunofixation Electrophoresis
    This method involves the separation of charged compounds based on their electrical change. When a voltage is applied to a salt solution, an electric current is produced by the flow of ions.
  5. Chromatography
    It is a separation method based on different interaction of the specimen compounds with the mobile phase and stationary phase as the compounds travel through a support medium. Compounds interacting more strongly with stationary phase are retained longer in the medium than those that from the mobile phase.
  6. Column chromatography
    It is a type of chromatography in which the stationary phase, is placed in a vertical glass (usually) column and the mobile phase, a liquid, is added to the top. This liquid then flows down through the column (by either gravity or external pressure). An equilibrium is established between the solute adsorbed on the adsorbent and the eluting solvent flowing down through the column. Because the different components in the mixture have different interactions with the stationary and mobile phases, they will be carried along with the mobile phase to varying degrees and a separation will be achieved. The individual component, or elutant, are collected as the solvent drips from the bottom of the column. Column chromatography is separated into two categories depending on how the solvent flows down the column. If the solvent is allowed to flow down the column by gravity, or percolation, it is called gravity column chromatography. If the solvent is forced down the column by positive air pressure, it is called flash chromatography. Column chromatography is generally used as a purification technique: it isolates desired compounds from a mixture.
  7. Nephlometry
    It refers to the measurement of light scattered by a particulate solution. It measures the concentration of a solution that contains particles too large for absorption spectroscopy. It is important in measuring antigen-antibody reactions.
  8. Haemagglutination
    The test uses the property of certain viruses to agglutinate red blood cells. This occurs due to the binding of haemagglutinin part of the viral protein to receptors on the membrane of red blood cells. This linking results in visible macroscopic clumping, known as haemagglutination.
  9. Latex agglutination
    It is a type of passive agglutination reaction in which polystyrene latex particles are attached to the surface of a soluble antigen. This step converts a precipitation reaction into a agglutination reaction. The latter being more convenient and sensitive for the detection of antibodies.
  10. Radial Immunodiffusion
    It is a type of precipitation reaction in which the antibody/antiserum is incorporated in agar gel poured on a flat surface (slide or Petri dish). The antigen is added to the well cut on the surface of the gel. The antigen diffuses radially from the well and forms ring shaped bands of precipitation concentrically around the well. The diameter of the halo gives an estimate of the concentration of the antigen.
  11. Indirect Immunoflorescence
    Immunoflorescence assays use fluorescent conjugated antibodies to locate antigens in samples and tissues. In indirect Immunoflorescence technique, the antigen is first mixed with the antibody and then treated with fluorescent conjugated antiglobulin serum. On examination under UV illumination, antigen-antibody complexes are seen as fluorescing objects against a dark background.
  12. Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay
    In this assay, fluorescein-labelled drug competes with unlabelled drug for antibody. On excitation of the sample with plane polarized light (490 nm). Fluorescein emits plane polarized light (520 nm). Small, free drug-fluorescein, rotates faster leading to less emission while larger, antibody- drug- fluorescein, rotates slower and produces more emission. Thus, more drug in the sample: less fluorescein labeled drug bound to antibody lower emission of plane polarized light.
  13. Flourescent Microscopy
    The excitatory light is passed from above (or, for inverted microscopes, from below), through the objective lens and then onto the specimen instead of passing it first through the specimen. The fluorescence in the specimen gives rise to emitted light which is focused to the detector by the same objective that is used for the excitation. Since most of the excitatory light is transmitted through the specimen, only reflected excitatory light reaches the objective together with the emitted light and this method therefore gives an improved signal to noise ratio. An additional filter between the objective and the detector can filter out the remaining excitation light from fluorescent light.